12 Symptoms Of A Bad Fuel Pressure Regulator: Diagnostic Tests!
In this article, we will discuss the most common symptoms of a bad fuel pressure regulator that will help you understand the importance of your engine’s fuel system and why it is so crucial to ensure it is working properly. If your fuel pressure regulator is bad, you will notice that you will lose power when you accelerate. So, read this guide till the end as I’ll uncover symptoms of a bad fuel pressure regulator and also discuss how fuel pressure goes bad.
The most common symptoms of a bad fuel pressure regulator are as follows:
- Illumination of the check engine light
- Consumption of more fuel than usual (reduced fuel mileage)
- Black smoke from the engine exhaust
- Sputtering of an engine
- Loss of engine power
- Loss of vehicle acceleration or stalling of the engine when the pedal is depressed
- Rough idling of the engine
- Rough engine running or missing speed when trying to accelerate
- Hard Starting of engine
- Bad driving experience
- Fouling of spark plugs
- Fuel in the vacuum hose connected to the fuel pressure regulator
Table of Contents
- A good fuel pressure regulator holds the fuel pressure in the rail when the engine is turned off.
- With a good fuel pressure regulator, an increase in vacuum applied through a vacuum pump tester causes a decrease in fuel pressure.
- A good fuel pressure regulator restricts its opening of the return line to the fuel tank when the engine is under load or throttled as more fuel has to be used in such conditions. So, to maintain the pressure, fuel should be restricted to return to the fuel tank.
- A good fuel pressure regulator also maintains the fuel pressure when the engine is running at idle by opening its return valve and allowing more fuel to return to the fuel tank. This is because less fuel is needed at idle. So, to avoid fuel pressure buildup in the fuel rail, extra fuel is allowed to return to the fuel tank.
- A bad pressure regulator is stuck closed, stuck open, or has a ruptured diaphragm.
- There are chances that the return line and vacuum hose of the fuel pressure regulator is clogged or damaged.
- In addition to the fuel pressure regulator, you should also inspect spark plugs, air filter, fuel filter, fuel lines, MAF/MAP sensor, throttle body, and fuel injectors as these all can cause engine misfires, which result in hard starting of your vehicle, rough idling, poor fuel economy and missing of speed when trying to accelerate.
Why A Fuel Pressure Regulator Is Needed?
The demand for the fuel needed by the engine changes when the engine is running idle, accelerating, deaccelerating, or cruising at certain speeds. The fuel pressure regulator regulates the amount of fuel delivered to the engine by adjusting the pressure at changing speeds i.e. at different throttles. This allows the fuel/air mixture to be perfect before entering the combustion chamber.
What Does A Fuel Pressure Regulator Do?
A fuel pressure regulator is a spring-loaded mechanical device that maintains consistent fuel pressure throughout the fuel rail. It is used in cars with fuel injection systems, as they are more sensitive to pressure fluctuations. A fuel injector is either open or closed. The ECM controls the amount of fuel by controlling the length of time the fuel injector should be opened. The flow rate through the fuel injector depends on the fuel pressure in the fuel rail. Therefore, the ECM needs the right pressure to inject the right amount of fuel.
The moment you turn on the ignition key, a fuel pump runs for a few seconds to build a certain pressure in the fuel rail. The fuel pressure regulator works by maintaining a specific operating pressure and regulating the flow of fuel through the injectors in the engine both at idle and increasing throttling conditions.
At idle, there is maximum vacuum present in the intake manifold as the throttle body is closed. This assists in the opening of the valve or lifting of the diaphragm inside the FPR to allow extra fuel to circulate back to the fuel tank.
As the vehicle is accelerated or load is increased, the throttle body opens and allows outside air to enter the intake manifold. This lowers the vacuum. As a vacuum is lowered and pressure inside the manifold is increased due to the opening of the throttle body, it pushed down the diaphragm of FPR and restricts the opening so that fuel does not return to the fuel tank. In this way, the desired fuel pressure is maintained in the fuel rail.
A fuel pressure regulator consists of a spring-loaded diaphragm. There is a small vacuum hose on the fuel pressure regulator connected to the air intake manifold. One port of the fuel pressure regulator is connected to the fuel tank and the other port to the end of the fuel rail.
Also, note that in some engines, a fuel pressure regulator comes with a fuel pump module that you will find in the fuel tank. This is a returnless fuel system in which FPR is a part of the pump assembly.
As you know the air intake manifold pressure always changes when you stop or accelerate your vehicle. As you throttle more, the pressure in the air intake manifold increases which adjusts the spring-loaded diaphragm inside the fuel pressure regulator. So, in engines with fuel pressure regulators, air intake manifold pressure is the main factor that controls the opening or closing of the fuel pressure regulator to maintain the fuel pressure.
Also, note that GDI engines (Gasoline Direct Injection Engines) do not have a fuel pressure regulator. Instead, they have a fuel pressure sensor. GDI engines have fuel injectors inside the engine cylinder while multiport fuel injection systems have fuel injectors in the air intake manifold. GDI engines have two fuel pumps. One is near the fuel tank and the other is connected to the fuel rail.
The high-pressure fuel pump has a flow control valve that is controlled by ECM (Engine control module). The fuel pressure sensor sends signals of fuel pressure inside the fuel rail to the ECM. The ECM sends electric signals to the flow control valve of the fuel pump to adjust the fuel pressure. That fuel pressure system is more reliable than a mechanically controlled fuel pressure regulator system.
How Does A Fuel Pressure Regulator Fail?
A fuel injector can fail in the following ways:
- Fuel pressure regulator can get stuck closed. When a fuel pressure regulator is stuck closed, it causes excessive pressure in the fuel rail that causes the fuel injectors to deliver too much fuel. It would result in a rich mixture.
- Fuel pressure regulator can get stuck open. When a fuel pressure regulator is stuck open, excessive fuel will return to the fuel tank, causing a decrease in pressure in the fuel rail. This would result in too little fuel in the engine, causing a lean mixture.
- Diaphram in a fuel pressure regulator can rupture, causing fuel to leak into the vacuum hose. In that case, you can see marks of fuel inside the throttle body (If put your finger inside the throttle body and rub against its walls, you will see black stains of fuel). It would also result in a rich mixture and excessive fuel consumption. This will decrease the MPG of your vehicle and you can also see excessive black smoke from exhaust.
- The casing or O-rings of the fuel pressure regulator are damaged, causing fuel leakage. FPR will not be able to hold fuel pressure if O-rings are damaged or not lubricated.
How To Diagnose A Bad Fuel Pressure Regulator?
A bad fuel pressure regulator can be diagnosed in the following ways:
- Measuring fuel pressure in the fuel rail by removing the vacuum hose from the fuel pressure regulator
- Checking any fuel dripping from the fuel pressure regulator
- Checking the spark plugs
- Using OBD2 scan to get the trouble codes stored in the engine’s memory
- Using a vacuum pump tester to apply vacuum and then note the fuel pressure gauge reading
You can use Bluedriver OBD2 scan tool to find the trouble codes in your engine if it is after the 1996 model. Take note that a bad pressure regulator does not trigger specific trouble codes. A bad pressure regulator can cause an engine misfire or cause the system to run too lean or too rich. A bad pressure regulator can also damage oxygen sensors and foul spark plugs. So, your engine can also show trouble codes related to the bad oxygen sensor or bad spark plugs. If you have a bad pressure regulator, you may see the following trouble codes:
- P0300 or P0301-P0308
Now, you need a fuel pressure gauge kit to measure the fuel pressure in the fuel system and diagnose a fuel pressure regulator. You need to connect your fuel pressure gauge to the Schrader valve or test port in your vehicle. Schrader valve is just like the valve you see on your car tires. You can see the below video for a better understanding:
However, in some vehicles, there is no Schrader. In that case, you have to remove the fuel inlet line and connect T-adapter (you can find it in the fuel pressure gauge kit).
After you have connected the fuel pressure gauge, turn the ignition key on for a few seconds, the fuel pump will prime the fuel line and you will see a certain pressure on the gauge. For each model, fuel pressure specification is different. You can find it in the owner’s manual. If you do not see any fuel pressure on the gauge, chances are that the fuel pump is not running. You should hear the whirring noise of your fuel pump.
After that, start the engine and let it run at idle. Observe the fuel pressure reading on the pressure gauge. During this test, remove the vacuum hose from a pressure regulator. The fuel pressure reading will increase by 7 to 8psi. If it doesn’t increase, it means the pressure regulator could be bad.
Similarly, if you apply a vacuum on the hose of the fuel pressure regulator using a vacuum pump tester while the engine is running, the fuel pressure will go down as the vacuum will increase.
Now remove the vacuum tester and again connect the vacuum hose yo
Now, turn off the engine. If the fuel pressure doesn’t hold and begins to drop soon, it could also indicate a bad pressure regulator.
You can check out the below video to test a pressure regulator for better understanding:
Other Components To Check If Vehicle Is Hard Staring or Missing While Accelerating
You should also check the following components of your engine if the vehicle is hard starting or not picking speed when you’re trying to accelerate:
- Air filter
- Vacuum hose attached to the fuel pressure regulator
- Fuel Injector
- Fuel filter
- Fuel leakage in the fuel system
If the vacuum hose is clogged or broken at some point, it will not provide a sufficient vacuum. Similarly, a clogged air filter also makes it difficult to suck a sufficient volume of air when the engine is under load or you’re trying to accelerate. So, make sure that the vacuum hose is properly connected to the FPR as it acts as a sensor of the fuel pressure.
Similarly, a fuel injector can also become stuck open, due to which it is leaking an excessive amount of fuel into the engine cylinder without atomizing it. This will also foul the spark plugs of an engine. Check my guide to test fuel injectors.
Can A Bad Fuel Pressure Regulator Cause Rough Idle?
A bad fuel pressure regulator causes a rough idle. When a pressure regulator becomes bad, it can be stuck open, stuck closed, or leaking fuel. This affects the air/fuel ratio that is required for uniform combustion.
Due to a bad pressure regulator, your engine will either run too rich or too lean. As a result, engine misfiring will take place. This will result in a rough idle and sluggish response from the engine.
A bad pressure regulator can also damage the fuel injectors if the fuel pressure exceeds the recommended pressure for a longer time. So, you should also need to check the fuel injectors.
Can A Bad Fuel Pressure Regulator Foul Spark Plugs?
A fuel pressure regulator can foul the spark plug with the carbon deposits of the fuel if the fuel pressure regulator is stuck closed or its diaphragm is ruptured, causing fuel to leak into the air intake manifold.
When the fuel pressure regulator is stuck closed, too much fuel pressure is built up in the fuel rail. As a result, fuel injectors will inject excessive fuel that will not be properly atomized and burn in the presence of air. As a result, it will foul the spark plugs.
Similarly, when a stream of fuel directly leaks into the air intake manifold, it will also come into contact with the spark plugs and damage them.
When spark plugs become bad, engine misfire will take place. The check engine light might turn on and your engine might throw P0300 trouble codes.
You must read this PDF related to bad spark plugs signs and causes to learn more.
How Much Does It Cost To Replace A Fuel Pressure Regulator?
When it comes to replacing a fuel pressure regulator, it depends on the make and model of your vehicle. As for the price, it varies greatly, depending on the parts, labor, and other fees that you’ll incur. Typically, the cost of a fuel pressure regulator can range from $100 to over $500 including the labor cost. A fuel pressure regulator is a high-precision device. So, make sure to buy a good one.
The cost of replacing a fuel pressure regulator increases because, in some vehicles, it is quite difficult to access the fuel pressure regulator and its mounting, especially its vacuum hose. You would need special tools to unbolt the bracket holding the fuel pressure regulator. You might also have to remove the intake manifold assembly and throttle body.
A fuel pressure regulator is an essential component of a car. It helps to ensure that the gasoline is being pumped at the correct pressure, which helps to prevent a car from running inefficiently. When the fuel pressure regulator fails, the air/fuel ratio is off. This is where the symptoms of a bad fuel pressure regulator kick in. This causes the engine to work harder and reduce its output, thus reducing your engine power, and increasing fuel consumption and emissions.